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Primary Immuno-Deficiency Diseases: Pluripotent stem cells could be used in treatment of virtually all primary immuno-deficiency diseases. Presently, there are more than 70 different forms of congenital and inherited deficiencies of the immune system that have been recognized. Included here are diseases such as Severe Combined Immuno-Deficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome and the autoimmune disease Lupus. These diseases are characterized by an unusual susceptibility to infection and often associated with anemia, arthritis, diarrhea and selected malignancies. However, the transplantation of stem cells reconstituted with the normal gene could result in restoration of immune function and effective normalization of life span and quality of life for these patients.

Diseases of Bone and cartilage: Stem cells, once appropriately differentiated could correct many diseases and degenerative conditions in which bone or cartilage cells are deficient in number or defective in function. This holds promise for treatment of genetic disorders such as Osteogenesis imperfecta and chondrodysplasias. Similarly, cells could be cultivated and introduced into damaged areas of joint cartilage in cases of osteo-arthritis or into large gaps in bone from fractures or surgery.

Cancer: At the present time, bone marrow stem cells representing a more committed stem cells, are used to rescue patient following high dose chemotherapy or irradiation. Unfortunately, these recovered cells are limited in their capacity to restore immune function completely in this setting. It is hoped that injections of properly differentiated stem cells would return the complete repertoire of immune response to patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Complete and functional restoration will be required if, for example, immune/vaccine anti-cancer therapy is to work. More importantly, success would permit use of very toxic and effective chemotherapeutic regimes that could not currently be utilized for lack of an ability to restore marrow and immune function.